Alchemical Theory: A Look at the Basic Principles of Alchemy


The One Thing (or the Subtle Ether)

Space, whether interplanetary, inner matter, or inter-organic, is filled with a subtle presence emanating from the One Thing of the universe. Later alchemists called it, as did the ancients, the subtle Ether. This primordial fluid or fabric of space pervades everything and all matter. Metal, mineral, tree, plant, animal, man; each is charged with the Ether in varying degrees. All life on the planet is charged in like manner; a world is built up in this fluid and move through a sea of it.

Alchemical Ether, which some Hermeticists call the Astral Light, determines the constitution of bodies. Hardness and softness, solidity and liquidity, all depend on the relative proportion of ethereal and ponderable matter of which they composed. The arbitrary division and classification of physical science, the whole range of physical phenomena, proceeds from the primary Ether, for science has reduced matter as we know it to nothing but Ether, which, although not solid matter, is still matter, the First Matter of the alchemists. When most of us speak of the matter, of course, we usually visualize solid substance, but it has been proved by that matter is not actually solid, but merely a stress, a strain in the etheric field of time and space. The atom and the electrons and protons of which it is composed, all move in a sea of Ether, so, that in accordance with this theory of alchemy, the very air we breathe, the very bodies we inhabit, all things must likewise be moving in this sea of Ether, the parent element from which all manifestation has come.

This principle that all things proceed from One Thing is demonstrable in the realm of biology, for the multicellular organisms, complex as they may be in their structure, nevertheless arise from a single cell. Science postulates that all matter is composed of atoms; atoms, however, are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and those in turn composed of still finer components until we the Ether. This Ether is.a universal connecting medium, filling all space to the furthest limits, penetrating the interstices of the atoms without a break in its continuity. So completely does it fill space that it is sometimes identified with space itself, and has, in fact, been spoken of as Absolute Space?

“The Ether of space,” according to physicist Sir Oliver Lodge, “is a theme of unknown and apparently infinite magnitude and of a reality beyond the present conception of man. It is that of which everyday material consists of, a link between the worlds, a consummate substance of overpowering grandeur. By a kind of instinct, one feels it is the home of spiritual existence, the realm of the awe-inspiring. and supernal. It is co-extensive with the physical universe and is absent from no part of space. Beyond the furthest star the Ether extends, in the heart of the atom, it has its being. It permeates and controls and dominates all. It eludes the human senses and can only be envisaged by the powers of the mind. Yet the Ether is a physical thing; it is not a physical entity, yet it has definite properties. It does not matter any more than hydrogen and oxygen is water, but it is the vehicle of both matter and spirit.”

Now, the alchemist has divided matter, seen and unseen, into seven principles or planes, and of these the fifth principle, or Quintessence, corresponds to science’s Ether or in more contemporary parlance, the Space-Time Continuum. If we are willing to admit that there is some truth in this relationship of ideas, then we may begin to see that alchemy is based on absolute law. All the forces of our scientists have originated in the Vital Principle, that one collective life. Our life is a part of, or rather one of the aspects of, the One Universal Life.

The Archaeus

During a person’s life, there is present a finely diffused form of matter, a vapor filling not merely every part of his physical body but actually stored in some parts; a matter constantly renewed by the vital chemistry; a matter as easily disposed of as the breath, once the breath has served its purpose. Paracelsus named this First Matter of life the Archaeus, meaning the oldest principle. “The Archaeus is an essence that is equally distributed in all parts of the human body,” he wrote. “The Spiritus Vitae(Spirit of Life) takes its origin from the Spiritus Mundi (Spirit of the Universe). Being an emanation of the latter, the Archaeus contains the elements of all cosmic influences and is, therefore, the cause by which the action of the cosmic forces act upon the body.”

The Archaeus is of a magnetic nature and is not enclosed in a body but radiates within and around it like a luminous sphere. Alchemy and alchemy alone, within the current historical epoch, has succeeded in obtaining a real element, or a particle of homogeneous matter. This is the true Mysterium Magnum. By this age-old science, the alchemist may set free this Vital Principle in his laboratory, destroy the body of the metal on which he is working, purify its Salt, and reassemble its principles together in a higher form. The alchemical process, which is, after all, but a miniature reproduction of a superior process in operation around us all the time, undoubtedly proceeds from Master Intelligences who have lived at some time or another on our earth.


The Scientific Approach

It is a pity that science must always reject old ideas and cast them away as useless before rediscovering them as something new to be incorporated into current theories. To discard the alchemist’s theories is about as intelligent as to dismiss as rubbish Einstein’s Theory of Relativity merely because one does not happen to understand his language. Some of our scientists have realized this for a long time. F. Hoefer in Histoire de la Chimie (Paris 1866) remarked: “The systems that confront the intelligence must remain basically unchanged through the ages, although they assume different forms [depending on the age and culture of man]. Thus, through mistaking form for basic truth, one conceives of an erroneous sequence. We must remember that there is nothing so disastrous in science as the arrogant dogmatism that despises the past and admires nothing but the present innovation.”

If scientists would try to understand the conception of the universe as taught by Hermeticism (the Perennial Philosophy) throughout the ages, taking as its starting-point the teaching of the One Mind in Manifestation; its seven planes of consciousness; its infinite archetypal forces, and as the basis of its philosophy the Emerald Tablet axiom “As Above, So Below,” it would create a lasting system of understanding based on eternal Truth instead of on a quicksand of egocentric theories. Science will never really understand the truth about life until it reaches this realization. Such a realization cannot be attained through its instruments and appliances but only through the inner powers of the mind.


The Quintessence

Paracelsus noted: “Nothing of true value is located in the body of a substance, but in the virtue thereof, and this is the principle of the Quintessence, which reduces, say 20 lbs. of a given substance into a single Ounce, and that ounce far exceeds the 20 lbs. in potency. Hence the less there is of the body, the more in proportion is the virtue thereof.”

“The Magi in their wisdom asserted that all creatures might be brought to one unified substance,” he continued, “which may by purification and purgation, attain to so high a degree of subtlety, such divine nature, and Hermetic property, as to work wonderful results. For they considered that by returning to the Earth, and by a supreme and magical separation, a certain perfect substance would come forth, which is at length, by many industrious and prolonged preparations, exalted and raised up above the range of vegetable substances into mineral, above mineral into metallic, and above perfect metallic substances into a perpetually alive and divine Quintessence. The evolutionary perfection includes within itself the essence of all celestial and terrestrial creatures.” By this Quintessence or quantum esse, Paracelsus meant the nucleus of the essences and properties of all things in the universal world.

From the Golden Casket of Benedictus Figulus comes the following wisdom: “For the elements and their compounds in addition to crass matter, are composed of a subtle substance, or intrinsic radical humidity, diffused through the elemental parts, simple and wholly incorruptible, long preserving the things themselves in vigor and called the Spirit of the World, proceeding as it does from the Soul of the World. This is the one certain Life filling and fathoming all things so that from the three emanations of sentient beings (Intellectual, Celestial, and Corruptible), there is formed the One Machine of the Whole World. This spirit by its virtue fecundates all subjects natural and artificial, pouring into them those hidden properties that we have been wanting to call the Fifth Essence or Quintessence. But this Fifth Essence is created by the Almighty for the preservation of the four qualities of the human body, even as, Heaven is for the preservation of the Universe. Therefore is this Fifth Essence and Spiritual Medicine, which is of Nature and the Heart of Heaven and not of a mortal and corrupt quality, makes life possible. The Fount of Medicine, the preservation of life, the restoration of health, and in this may be the cherished renewal of lost youth and serene health be found.”

The Seven Hermetic Principles

“The Principles of Truth are Seven; he who knows these, understandingly, possesses the Magic Key before whose touch all the Doors of the Temple fly open.” — The Kybalion.

alchemy scienceThe Seven Hermetic Principles, upon which the entire Hermetic Philosophy is based, are as follows:



“THE ALL is MIND; The Universe is Mental.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that “All is Mind.” It explains that THE ALL (which is the Substantial Reality underlying all the outward manifestations and appearances which we know under the terms of “The Material Universe”; the “Phenomena of Life”; “Matter”; “Energy”; and, in short, all that is apparent to our material senses) is SPIRIT, which in itself is UNKNOWABLE and UNDEFINABLE, but which may be considered and thought of as AN UNIVERSAL, INFINITE, LIVING MIND. It also explains that all the phenomenal world or universe is simply a Mental Creation of THE ALL, subject to the Laws of Created Things, and that the universe, as a whole, and in its parts or units, has its existence in the Mind of THE ALL, in which Mind we “live and move and have our being.” This Principle, by establishing the Mental Nature of the Universe, easily explains all of the varied mental and psychic phenomena that occupy such a large portion of the public attention, and which, without such explanation, are non-understandable and defy scientific treatment. An understanding of this great Hermetic Principle of Mentalism enables the individual to readily grasp the laws of the Mental Universe and to apply the same to his well-being and advancement. The Hermetic Student is enabled to apply intelligently the great Mental Laws, instead of using them in a haphazard manner. With tire Master-Key in his possession, the student may unlock the many doors of the mental and psychic temple of knowledge, and enter the same freely and intelligently. This Principle explains the true nature of “Energy,” “Power,” and “Matter,” and why and how all these are subordinate to the Mastery of Mind. One of the old Hermetic Masters wrote, long ages ago: “He who grasps the truth of the Mental Nature of the Universe is well advanced on The Path to Mastery.” And these words are as true today as at the time they were first written. Without this Master-Key, Mastery is impossible, and the student knocks in vain at the many doors of The Temple.


“As above, so below; as below so above.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that there is always a Correspondence between the laws and phenomena of the various planes of Being and Life. The old Hermetic axiom ran in these words: “As above, so below; as below, so above.” And the grasping of this Principle gives one the means of solving many a dark paradox, and hidden secret of Nature. There are planes beyond our knowing, but when we apply the Principle of Correspondence to them we are able to understand much that would otherwise be unknowable to us. This Principle is of universal application and manifestation, on the various planes of the material, mental, and spiritual universe — it is a Universal Law. The ancient Hermetists considered this Principle as one of the most important mental instruments by which man was able to pry aside the obstacles which hid from view the Unknown. Its use even tore aside the Veil of Isis to the extent that a glimpse of the face of the goddess might be caught. Just as a knowledge of the Principles of Geometry enables man to measure distant suns and their movements, while seated in his observatory, so a knowledge of the Principle of Correspondence enables Man to reason intelligently from the Known to the Unknown. Studying the monad, he understands the archangel.


“Nothing rests; everything moves; everything vibrates.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that “everything is in motion”; “everything vibrates”; “nothing is at rest”; facts which Modern Science endorses, and which each new scientific discovery tends to verify. And yet this Hermetic Principle was enunciated thousands of years ago, by the Masters of Ancient Egypt. This Principle explains that the differences between different manifestations of Matter, Energy, Mind, and even Spirit, result largely from varying rates of Vibration. From THE ALL, which is Pure Spirit, down to the grossest form of Matter, all is in vibration — the higher the vibration, the higher the position in the scale. The vibration of Spirit is at such an infinite rate of intensity and rapidity that it is practically at rest — just as a rapidly moving wheel seems to be motionless. And at the other end of the scale, there are gross forms of matter whose vibrations are so low as to seem at rest. Between these poles, there are millions upon millions of varying degrees of vibration. From corpuscle and electron, atom and molecule, to worlds and universes, everything is in vibratory motion. This is also true on the planes of energy and force (which are but varying degrees of vibration), and also on the mental planes (whose states depend upon vibrations); and even on to the spiritual planes. An understanding of this Principle, with the appropriate formulas, enables Hermetic students to control their own mental vibrations as well as those of others. The Masters also apply this Principle to the conquering of Natural phenomena, in various ways. “He who understands the Principle of Vibration, has grasped the scepter of Power,” says one of the old writers.


“Everything is Dual; everything has poles; everything has its pair of opposites; like and unlike are the same; opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree; extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths; all paradoxes may be reconciled.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that “everything is dual”; “everything has two poles”; “everything has its pair of opposites,” all of which were old Hermetic axioms. It explains the old paradoxes, that have perplexed so many, which have been stated as follows: “Thesis and antithesis are identical in nature, but different in degree”; “opposites are the same, differing only in degree”; “the pairs of opposites may be reconciled”; “extremes meet”; “everything is and isn’t, at the same time”; “all truths are but half-truths”; “every truth is half-false”; “there are two sides to everything,” etc., etc., etc. It explains that in everything there are two poles or opposite aspects, and that “opposites” are really only the two extremes of the same thing, with many varying degrees between them. To illustrate Heat and Cold, although “opposites,” are really the same thing, the differences consisting merely of degrees of the same thing. Look at your thermometer and see if you can discover where “heat” terminates and “cold” begins! There is no such thing as “absolute heat” or “absolute cold” — the two terms “heat” and “cold” simply indicate varying degrees of the same thing, and that “same thing” which manifests as “heat” and “cold” is merely a form, variety, and rate of Vibration. So “heat” and “cold” are simply the “two poles” of that which we call “Heat” — and the phenomena attendant thereupon is manifestations of the Principle of Polarity. The same Principle manifests in the case of “Light and Darkness,” which are the same thing, the difference consisting of varying degrees between the two poles of the phenomena. Where does “darkness” leave off, and “light” begin? What is the difference between “Large and Small”? Between “Hard and Soft”? Between “Black and White”? Between “Sharp and Dull”? Between “Noise and Quiet”? Between “High and Low”? Between “Positive and Negative”? The Principle of Polarity explains these paradoxes, and no other Principle can supersede it. The same Principle operates on the Mental Plane. Let us take a radical and extreme example — that of “Love and Hate,” two mental states apparently totally different. And yet there are degrees of hate and degrees of Love, and a middle point in which we use the terms “Like or Dislike,” which shade into each other so gradually that sometimes we are at a loss to know whether we “like” or “dislike” or “neither.” And all are simply degrees of the same thing, as you will see if you will but think a moment. And, more than this (and considered of more importance by the Hermetists), it is possible to change the vibrations of hate to the vibrations of Love, in one’s own mind, and in the minds of others. Many of you, who read these lines, have had personal experiences of the involuntary rapid transition from Love to Hate, and the reverse, in your own case and that of others. And you will, therefore, realize the possibility of this being accomplished by the use of the Will, by means of the Hermetic formulas. “Good and Evil” are but the poles of the same thing and the Hermetist understands the art of transmuting Evil into Good, by means of an application of the Principle of Polarity. In short, the “Art of Polarization” becomes a phase of “Mental Alchemy” known and practiced by the ancient and modern Hermetic Masters. An understanding of the Principle will enable one to change his own Polarity, as well as that of others if he will devote the time and study necessary to master the art.


“Everything flows, out and in; everything has its tides; all things rise and fall; the pendulum-swing manifests in everything; the measure of the swing to the right is the measure of the swing to the left; rhythm compensates.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that in everything there is manifested a measured motion, to and fro; a flow and inflow; a swing backward and forward; a pendulum-like movement; a tide-like ebb and flow; a high-tide and low-tide; between the two poles which exist in accordance with the Principle of Polarity described a moment ago. There is always an action and a reaction; an advance and a retreat a rising and a sinking. This is in the affairs of the Universe, suns, worlds, men, animals, mind, energy, and matter. This law is manifest in the creation and destruction of worlds; in the rise and fall of nations; in the life of all things; and finally in the mental states of Man (and it is with this latter that the Hermetists find the understanding of the Principle most important). The Hermetists have grasped this Principle, finding its universal application, and have also discovered certain means to overcome its effects in themselves by the use of the appropriate formulas and methods. They apply the Mental Law of Neutralization. They cannot annul the Principle, or Cause it to cease its operation, but they have learned how to escape its effects upon themselves to a certain degree depending upon the Mastery of the Principle. They have learned how to use it, instead of being USED BY it. In this and similar methods, consist the Art of the Hermetists. The Master of Hermetics polarizes himself at the point at which he desires to rest, and then neutralizes the Rhythmic swing of the pendulum which would tend to carry him to the other pole. All individuals who have attained any degree of Self-Mastery do this to a certain degree, more or less unconsciously, but the Master does this consciously, and by the use of his Will and attains a degree of Poise and Mental Firmness almost impossible of belief on the part of the masses who are swung backward and forward like a pendulum. This Principle and that of Polarity have been closely studied by the Hermetists, and the methods of counteracting, neutralizing and USING them form an important part of the Hermetic Mental Alchemy.


“Every Cause has its Effect; every Effect has its Cause; everything happens according to Law; Chance is but a name for Law not recognized; there are many planes of causation, but nothing escapes the Law.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the fact that there is a Cause for every Effect; an Effect from every Cause. It explains that: “Everything Happens according to Law”; that nothing ever “merely happens”; that there is no such thing as Chance; that while there are various planes of Cause and Effect, the higher dominating the lower planes, still nothing ever entirely escapes the Law. The Hermetists understand the art and methods of rising above the ordinary plane of Cause and Effect, to a certain degree, and by mentally rising to a higher plane they become Causers instead of Effects. The masses of people have carried along, obedient to environment; the wills and desires of others stronger than themselves; heredity; suggestion; and other outward causes moving them about like pawns on the Chessboard of Life. But the Masters, rising to the plane above, dominate their moods, characters, qualities, and powers, as well as the environment surrounding them, and become Movers instead of pawns. They help to PLAY THE GAME OF LIFE, instead of being played and moved about by other wills and environment. They USE the Principle instead of being its tools. The Masters obey the Causation of the higher planes, but they help to RULE on their own plane. In this statement there is condensed a wealth of Hermetic knowledge — let him read who can.


“Gender is in everything; everything has its Masculine and Feminine Principles Gender; manifests on all planes.” — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that there is GENDER manifested in everything — the Masculine and Feminine Principles ever at work. This is true not only of the Physical Plane but of the Mental and even the Spiritual Planes. On the Physical Plane, the Principle manifests as SEX, on the higher planes it takes higher forms, but the Principle is ever the same. No creation, physical, mental or spiritual, is possible without this Principle. An understanding of its laws will throw light on many a subject that has perplexed the minds of men. The Principle of Gender works ever in the direction of generation, regeneration, and creation. Everything and every person contains the two Elements or Principles, or this great Principle, within it, him or her. Every Male thing has the Female Element also; every Female contains also the Male Principle. If you would understand the philosophy of Mental and Spiritual Creation, Generation, and Regeneration, you must understand and study this Hermetic Principle. It contains the solution of many mysteries of Life. We caution you that this Principle has no reference to the many bases, pernicious and degrading lustful theories, teachings, and practices, which are taught under fanciful titles, and which are a prostitution of the great natural principle of Gender. Such base revivals of the ancient infamous forms of Phallicism tend to ruin mind, body, and soul, and the Hermetic Philosophy has ever sounded the warning note against these degraded teachings which tend toward lust, licentiousness, and perversion of Nature’s principles. If you seek such teachings, you must go elsewhere for them — Hermeticism contains nothing for you along these lines. To the pure, all things are pure; to the base, all things are base.

Plants Containing the Planetary Metals

This listing of plants containing significant quantities of the alchemical planetary metals has been taken from the Phytochemical Database – USDA – ARS – NGRL at

Plants Containing LEAD

1. Nyssa sylvatica MARSHALL – Black Gum (Leaf) 0.2-182 ppm

2. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus MOENCH. – Buckbrush (Stem) 2-176 ppm

3. Juniperus virginiana L. – Red Cedar (Shoot) 0.7-132 ppm

4. Nyssa sylvatica MARSHALL – Black Gum (Stem) 0.1-132 ppm

5. Prunus serotina EHRH. – Black Cherry (Stem) 0.2-108 ppm

6. Carya glabra (MILLER) SWEET – Pignut Hickory (Shoot) 2-103 ppm

7. Rhus copallina L. – Dwarf Sumac (Stem) 0.2-92 ppm

8. Fucus vesiculosus L. – Bladderwrack (Plant) 91 ppm

9. Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon (Stem) 0.2-81 ppm

10. Quercus alba L. – White Oak (Stem) 0.2-76 ppm

11. Prunus serotina EHRH. – Black Cherry (Leaf) 0.3-67 ppm

12. Rhus copallina L. – Dwarf Sumac (Leaf) 0.2-67 ppm

13. Malus Domestica BORKH. – Apple (Fruit) 0.002-64 ppm

14. Pinus echinata MILLER – Shortleaf Pine (Shoot) 1.7-63 ppm

15. Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER – Tomato (Fruit) 0.003-60 ppm

16. Quercus stellata WANGENH. – Post Oak (Stem) 0.7-59 ppm

17. Liquidambar styraciflua L. – American Styrax (Stem) 0.2-57 ppm

18. Carya ovata (MILL.) K. KOCH – Shagbark Hickory (Shoot) 0.7-46 ppm

19. Sassafras albidum (NUTT.) NEES – Sassafras (Stem) 0.1-37 ppm

20. Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon (Leaf) 0.5-35 ppm

21. Sassafras albidum (NUTT.) NEES – Sassafras (Leaf) 1-34 ppm

22. Quercus velutina Lam. – Black Oak (Stem) 1.5-31 ppm

23. Asparagus Officinalis L. – Asparagus (Shoot) 1.5-30 ppm

24. Liquidambar styraciflua L. – American Styrax (Leaf) 0.4-25 ppm

25. Quercus phellos L. – Willow Oak (Stem) 0.4-21 ppm

26. Rhus glabra L. – Smooth Sumac (Stem) 0.4-20 ppm

27. Hypericum perforatum L. – Common St. Johnswort (Leaf) 6-18 ppm

28. Quercus rubra L. – Northern Red Oak (Stem) 1.4-17 ppm

29. Zea mays L. – Corn (Seed) 0-14 ppm

30. Hypericum perforatum L. – Common St. Johnswort (Plant) 2-12 ppm

31. Prunus domestica L. – Plum (Fruit) 0.02-11.9 ppm

32. Phaseolus vulgaris L. – Blackbean (Fruit) 0.01-10.5 ppm

33. Cinnamomum sieboldii – Japanese Cinnamon (Root Bark) 9 ppm

34. Vitis vinifera L. – Grape (Fruit) 0.02-9 ppm

35. Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP. – Cowpea (Seed) 0.4-8.4 ppm

36. Cinnamomum sieboldii – Japanese Cinnamon (Bark) 8 ppm

37. Citrus paradisi MacFAD. – Grapefruit (Fruit) 0.02-7.7 ppm

38. Lactuca sativa L. – Lettuce (Leaf) 0.02-6 ppm

39. Urtica dioica L. – European Nettle (Leaf) 1-6 ppm

40. Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. – Cabbage (Leaf) 0.002-5.8 ppm

Plants Containing TIN

1. Schisandra Chinensis (TURCZ.) BAILL. – Chinese Magnoliavine (Fruit) 940 ppm

2. Elytrigia repens (L.) NEVSKI – Couchgrass (Plant) 67 ppm

3. Juniperus communis L. – Common Juniper (Fruit) 63 ppm

4. Silybum marianum (L.) GAERTN. – Milk Thistle (Plant) 42 ppm

5. Gentiana lutea L. – Yellow Gentian (Root) 40 ppm

6. Cypripedium pubescens WILLD. – Ladyslipper (Root) 33 ppm

7. Rhodymenia palmata – Dulse (Plant) 33 ppm

8. Althaea Officinalis L. – Marshmallow (Root) 29 ppm

9. Valeriana officinalis L. – Valerian (Root) 28 ppm

10. Chondrus crispus (L.) STACKH. – Irish Moss (Plant) 27 ppm

11. Urtica dioica L. – European Nettle (Leaf) 27 ppm

12. Achillea millefolium L. – Yarrow (Plant) 26 ppm

13. Berberis vulgaris L. – Barberry (Root) 26 ppm

14. Cnicus benedictus L. – Blessed Thistle (Plant) 25 ppm

15. Trifolium pratense L. – Red Clover (Flower) 25 ppm

16. Fucus vesiculosus L. – Bladderwrack (Plant) 24 ppm

17. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. – Licorice (Root) 24 ppm

18. Harpagophytum procumbens DC. – Devil’s Claw (Root) 24 ppm

19. Mentha pulegium L. – European Pennyroyal (Plant) 24 ppm

20. Rumex Crispus L. – Curly Dock (Root) 24 ppm

21. Cucurbita pepo L. – Pumpkin (Seed) 23 ppm

22. Humulus lupulus L. – Hops (Fruit) 22 ppm

23. Myrica cerifera L. – Bayberry (Bark) 22 ppm

24. Rosa canina L. – Rose (Fruit) 22 ppm

25. Arctium lappa L. – Gobo (Root) 21 ppm

26. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) MICHX. – Blue Cohosh (Root) 21 ppm

27. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) BERNH. – Feverfew (Plant) 21 ppm

28. Plantago psyllium L. – Psyllium (Seed) 21 ppm

29. Ruscus aculeatus L. – Butcher’s Broom (Root) 21 ppm

30. Dioscorea sp. – Wild Yam (Root) 19 ppm

31. Smilax spp – Sarsaparilla (Root) 18 ppm

32. Viburnum opulus L. – Crampbark (Bark) 18 ppm

33. Viscum album L. – European Mistletoe (Leaf) 18 ppm

34. Echinacea spp – Coneflower (Root) 17 ppm

35. Thymus vulgaris L. – Common Thyme (Leaf) 17 ppm

36. Panax ginseng C. MEYER – Chinese Ginseng (Root) 16 ppm

37. Ulmus rubra MUHLENB. – Slippery Elm (Bark) 16 ppm

38. Stevia rebaudiana (BERT.) HEMSL. – Ca-A-E (Leaf) 15 ppm

39. Equisetum arvense L. – Field Horsetail (Plant) 14 ppm

40. Larrea tridentata (SESSE & MOC. ex DC.) COV. – Chaparral (Plant) 14 ppm

41. Crataegus oxycantha L. – Hawthorn (Fruit) 13 ppm

42. Polygonum multiflorum THUNB. – Chinese Cornbind (Root) 13 ppm

43. Taraxacum officinale WIGG. – Dandelion (Root) 13 ppm

44. Zingiber officinale ROSCOE – Ginger (Rhizome) 13 ppm

45. Centella Asiatica (L.) URBAN – Gotu Kola (Leaf) 12 ppm

46. Hordeum vulgare L. – Barley (Stem) 12 ppm

47. Juglans nigra L. – Black Walnut (Fruit) 12 ppm

48. Salix alba L. – White Willow (Bark) 12 ppm

49. Verbascum thapsus L. – Mullein (Leaf) 12 ppm

50. Vitis vinifera L. – Grape (Stem) 12 ppm

51. Agathosma betulina (BERGIUS) PILL. – Buchu (Leaf) 11 ppm

52. Aloe vera (L.) BURM. f. – Bitter Aloes (Leaf) 11 ppm

53. Barosma betulina (BERG.) BARTL. & WENDL. f. – Buchu (Leaf) 11 ppm

54. Ephedra sinica STAPF – Ma Huang (Plant) 11 ppm

55. Foeniculum vulgare MILLER – Fennel (Fruit) 11 ppm

56. Hydrangea arborescens L. – Smooth Hydrangea (Root) 11 ppm

57. Mentha x Piperita L. – Peppermint (Leaf) 11 ppm

58. Nepeta cataria L. – Catnip (Plant) 11 ppm

59. Turnera diffusa WILLD. – Damiana (Leaf) 11 ppm

60. Carthamus tinctorius L. – Safflower (Flower) 10 ppm

61. Chamaemelum Nobile (L.) ALL. – Garden Chamomile (Flower) 10 ppm

62. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – Roselle (Flower) 10 ppm

63. Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH – Peach (Bark) 9.4 ppm

64. Hydrastis Canadensis L. – Goldenseal (Root) 9.3 ppm

65. Euphrasia Officinalis L. – Eyebright (Plant) 8 ppm

66. Salvia officinalis L. – Sage (Leaf) 8 ppm

67. Yucca baccata TORR. – Spanish Bayonet (Root) 8 ppm

68. Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex NEES) STAPF – West Indian Lemongrass (Plant) 7.1 ppm

69. Lobelia inflata L. – Indian Tobacco (Leaf) 7 ppm

70. Symphytum officinale L. – Comfrey (Root) 6.7 ppm

71. Allium sativum L. – Garlic (Bulb) 6 ppm

72. Avena sativa L. – Oats (Plant) 6 ppm

73. Rhamnus purshianus DC. – Cascara Sagrada (Bark) 5.1 ppm

74. Capsicum annuum L. – Bell Pepper (Fruit) 5 ppm

75. Angelica Sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS – Dang Gui (Root) 4 ppm

76. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. – Fenugreek (Seed) 4 ppm

77. Tabebuia heptaphylla (VELL.) TOLEDO – Pau D’Arco (Bark) 3.7 ppm

78. Bertholletia excelsa HUMB. & BONPL. – Brazilnut (Seed) 3.5 ppm

79. Citrus paradisi MacFAD. – Grapefruit (Fruit) 0.66-3.3 ppm

80. Carya ovata (MILL.) K. KOCH – Shagbark Hickory (Seed) 3.2 ppm

81. Daucus carota L. – Carrot (Root) 0-3 ppm

82. Beta vulgaris L. – Beet (Root) 0.8-2.8 ppm

83. Corylus avellana L. – English Filbert (Seed) 2.7 ppm

84. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus MOENCH. – Buckbush (Stem) 0.5-2.6 ppm

85. Quercus alba L. – White Oak (Bark) 2.2 ppm

86. Carya illinoensis (WANGENH.) K. KOCH – Pecan (Seed) 1.8 ppm

87. Zea mays L. – Corn (Seed) 1-1.8 ppm

88. Juglans nigra L. – Black Walnut (Seed) 1.7 ppm

89. Cocos nucifera L. – Coconut (Seed) 1.5 ppm

90. Scutellaria lateriflora L. – Maddog Skullcap (Plant) 1.2 ppm

Biological Activities of TIN:

Antiacne ; Bactericide ; Pesticide ; Taenicide MAR;

Plants Containing IRON

1. Taraxacum officinale WIGG. – Dandelion (Leaf) 500-5,000 ppm

2. Echinacea spp – Coneflower (Root) 700-4,800 ppm

3. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus MOENCH. – Buckbush (Stem) 19-4,400 ppm

4. Valerianella locusta (L.) LATERRADE – Corn Salad (Plant) 3,519-4,143 ppm

5. Artemisia vulgaris L. – Mugwort (Plant) 1,200-3,900 ppm

6. Boehmeria nivea (L.) GAUDICH. – Ramie (Plant) 1,500-3,500 ppm

7. Physalis ixocarpa BROT. – Tomatillo (Fruit) 14-2,974 ppm

8. Harpagophytum procumbens DC. – Devil’s Claw (Root) 2,900 ppm

9. Asiasarum heterotropoides MAEK. – Asian Wild Ginger (Root) 450-2,800 ppm

10. Asiasarum sieboldii (MIQ.) MAEK. – Siebold’s Wild Ginger (Root) 450-2,800 ppm

11. Stellaria media (L.) VILLARS – Chickweed (Plant) 2,530 ppm

12. Verbascum thapsus L. – Mullein (Leaf) 2,360 ppm

13. Mentha pulegium L. – European Pennyroyal (Plant) 2,310 ppm

14. Carthamus tinctorius L. – Safflower (Flower) 81-2,200 ppm

15. Petasites japonicus (SIEBOLD & ZUCC.) MAXIM. – Butterbur (Plant) 2,000-2,100 ppm

16. Amaranthus spinosus L. – Spiny pigweed (Leaf) 22-1,965 ppm

17. Polystichum polyblepharum (ROEM.) PRESL – Chinese Polystichum (Plant) 500-1,900 ppm

18. Trifolium pratense L. – Red Clover (Shoot) 10-1,850 ppm

19. Nyssa sylvatica MARSHALL – Black Gum (Leaf) 8-1,820 ppm

20. Angelica dahurica BENTH & HOOK. – Bai Zhi (Root) 1,800 ppm

21. Schizonepeta tenuifolia BRIQ. – Ching-Chieh (Plant) 1,700 ppm

22. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) MICHX. – Blue Cohosh (Root) 1,640ppm

23. Ruscus aculeatus L. – Butcher’s Broom (Root) 1,640 ppm

24. Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon (Stem) 3-1,620 ppm

25. Amaranthus sp. – Pigweed (Leaf) 23-1,527 ppm

26. Thymus vulgaris L. – Common Thyme (Plant) 1,075-1,508 ppm

27. Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE – Tea (Leaf) 189-1,500 ppm

28. Manihot esculenta CRANTZ – Cassava (Leaf) 28-1,500 ppm

29. Arctium lappa L. – Gobo (Root) 8-1,470 ppm

30. Prunus serotina EHRH. – Black Cherry (Leaf) 20-1,440 ppm

31. Berberis vulgaris L. – Barberry (Root) 1,410 ppm

32. Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE – Chih-Mu (Rhizome) 90-1,400 ppm

33. Peucedanum decursivum (MIQ.) MAX. – Qian Hu (Plant) 780-1,400 ppm

34. Nepeta cataria L. – Catnip (Plant) 1,380 ppm

35. Chamissoa altissima (JACQ.) HBK – Guanique (Leaf) 137-1,370 ppm

36. Cynanchum atratum BUNGE – Bai-Wei (Root) 1,350 ppm

37. Juniperus virginiana L. – Red Cedar (Shoot) 11-1,320 ppm

38. Polygonum cuspidatum SIEBOLD & ZUCC. – Japanese Knotweed (Plant) 360-1,300 ppm

39. Senna occidentalis (L.) H. IRWIN & BARNEBY – Coffee Senna (Seed) 1,300 ppm

40. Equisetum arvense L. – Field Horsetail (Plant) 698-1,230 ppm

Biological Activities of IRON

Antiakathisic M29; Antianemic M29; Anticheilitic DAS; Antimenorrhagic

100mg/day/wmn/orl PAM;

Plants Containing GOLD


Biological Activities of GOLD:

Antiarthritic ; Antiulcer MAR; Nephrotoxic ;

Plants Containing COPPER

1. Prunus serotina EHRH. – Black Cherry (Stem) 1.3-378 ppm

2. Liquidambar styraciflua L. – American Styrax (Stem) 0.6-360 ppm

3. Nyssa sylvatica MARSHALL – Black Gum (Leaf) 1.25-182 ppm

4. Liquidambar styraciflua L. – American Styrax (Leaf) 2.8-164 ppm

5. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus MOENCH. – Buckbush (Stem) 3.8-132 ppm

6. Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon (Stem) 0.2-108 ppm

7. Sassafras albidum (NUTT.) NEES – Sassafras (Leaf) 1.6-102 ppm

8. Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER – Tomato (Fruit) 0.4-100 ppm

9. Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. – Cabbage (Leaf) 0.3-87 ppm

10. Corylus avellana L. – English Filbert (Seed) 13-82 ppm

11. Sassafras albidum (NUTT.) NEES – Sassafras (Stem) 0.2-56 ppm

12. Sesamum indicum L. – Sesame (Plant) 14-56 ppm

13. Carya glabra (MILLER) SWEET – Pignut Hickory (Shoot) 0.9-55 ppm

14. Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. – Broccoli (Leaf) 0.68-52 ppm

15. Carya ovata (MILL.) K. KOCH – Shagbark Hickory (Shoot) 1.25-45 ppm

16. Phaseolus vulgaris L. – Blackbean (Fruit) 0.62-45 ppm

17. Brassica oleracea L. – Collards (Leaf) 2-43 ppm

18. Cucumis sativus L. – Cucumber (Fruit) 0.3-42 ppm

19. Quercus stellata WANGENH. – Post Oak (Stem) 1.2-42 ppm

20. Anacardium occidentale L. – Cashew (Seed) 22-37 ppm

21. Rosa canina L. – Rose (Fruit) 1.8-36 ppm

22. Eupatorium odoratum L. – Jack na bush (Leaf) 35 ppm

23. Rhizophora mangle L. – Red Mangrove (Leaf) 35 ppm

24. Prunus domestica L. – Plum (Fruit) 0.33-34 ppm

25. Cocos nucifera L. – Coconut (Seed) 3.2-33 ppm

26. Pistacia vera L. – Pistachio (Seed) 11-33 ppm

27. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. – Asparagus Pea (Seed) 28-33 ppm

28. Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.IRWIN & BARNEBY – Sicklepod (Seed) 9-32 ppm

29. Nyssa sylvatica MARSHALL – Black Gum (Stem) 0.3-31 ppm

30. Quercus velutina LAM. – Black Oak (Stem) 1.5-31 ppm

31. Cucurbita maxima DUCH. – Pumpkin (Leaf) 4.2-30 ppm

32. Helianthus tuberosus L. – Jerusalem Artichoke (Plant) 8-30 ppm

33. Momordica charantia L. – Bitter Melon (Fruit) 30 ppm

34. Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH – Peach (Fruit) 0.3-30 ppm

35. Rhus copallina L. – Dwarf Sumac (Stem) 1.8-30 ppm

36. Rumex acetosa L. – Garden Sorrel (Leaf) 3-30 ppm

37. Arctium lappa L. – Gobo (Root) 29 ppm

38. Lactuca sativa L. – Lettuce (Leaf) 0.36-29 ppm

39. Prunus serotina EHRH. – Black Cherry (Leaf) 0.8-29 ppm

40. Quercus phellos L. – Willow Oak (Stem) 1-29 ppm

Biological Activities of COPPER

Antiarthritic DAS; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER; Antiinflammatory WER; Antinociceptive WER; Contraceptive MAR; Hypocholesterolemic DAS; Schizophrenigenic DAS;

Plants Containing MERCURY

1. Cinnamomum aromaticum NEES – Cassia (Plant) 60 ppm

2. Fucus vesiculosus L. – Bladderwrack (Plant) 40 ppm

3. Rhodymenia palmata – Dulse (Plant) 26 ppm

4. Lycium chinense MILL. – Wolfberry (Fruit) 8 ppm

5. Chondrus crispus (L.) STACKH. – Irish Moss (Plant) 7 ppm

6. Juncus effusus L. – Rush (Pith) 1.41 ppm

7. Arctium lappa L. – Gobo (Root) 1.27 ppm

Biological Activities of MERCURY

Nephrotoxic PAM;

Plants Containing SILVER

1. Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER – Tomato (Fruit) 0-1.4 ppm

2. Quercus rubra L. – Northern Red Oak (Stem) 0-1.32 ppm

Biological Activities of SILVER

Astringent ; Bactericide MAR; Pesticide